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Essay 1

Modes of Communication Essay

Essay 4

Management Essay 

Essay 2

Adolescents tried as adults

Essay 5

Gang Violence Essay

Essay 3

What conributes to crime?

Essay 6

Abuse of power by police

Modes of Communication Essay 



Communication happens every minute of the day.  Alot of communication is done unconsciously due to the fact that much of our communication is happening non verbally. Communication or the lack thereof can seriously hamper our relationships so lets take a deeper dive into communication and examine the various modes.


First of communication can be written, formal and informal. In the shakespearean days people would write letters to communicate their love and affection for each other. This kind of written communication was valued and was the bloodline for many.  Today, young lovers use text messages as a form of written communication to expresses ideas and feelings. Text messages unlike written messages are cheaper and faster.


     When your parents  "receive a legal notice from the bank, to pay an outstanding loan this is another example of written but formal communication.  This form of communication is slower and more expensive because ink and paper must be used. Also it relies on a post office for delivery.


Formal communication forms the core of our professional lives (though not all professional communication is formal). For example, when we form whatsapp groups and members of a company communicate throughout the day via text messages this is considered informal- formal communication. Although staff members are texting, they wouldnt think about posting pictures of themselves in a swimsuit or of them kissing a boyfriend or a girlfriend or worst a nude photo. Everyone does their endeavor to keep the whatsapp group chat professional.

Oral communication is one of the oldest and easiest forms of communication. Before paper was invented people communicated through word of mouth. They had to remember long messages and this is how they keep their history alive. Some cultures though have lost a great deal of their history as result of never writing anything down. During a meeting at many large companies Oral communication plays an important role in getting information out swiftly. It also reduces paper wastage.


What about non-verbal comunication? Perhaps this is the most important of all.  It includes facial expressions, posture, eye contact, hand movements, and touch. Through these cues people can tell a great deal about us. In the dating world a smile is considered an open invitation for a guy to come over and talk to you while a serious face says dont bother because you’re not my type.  Or if the guy you like never gives you eye contact- just know he is probably not that into you. So non-verbal communication can tell us loads about a person’s thoughts and feelings.

Visual communication is the act of using photographs, art, drawings, sketches, charts and graphs to convey information. Because people have different learning styles, visual communication is more helpful in helping some students retain important information. What would the world look like without pictures to hang on your wall in your house? Quite bland. 

     All in all, these different forms of communication add color to our lives.  Communication is the spice of life. So learn to be good at it!

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Adolescents should be tried as Adults 

by Sherrel Johnson

          Would you as a parent be okay with your adolescent being tried as an adult?  I strongly disagree that adolescents who have committed serious crimes should be tried as adults. This should not be allowed because if convicted they may suffer abuse, they do not have a fully developed brain and these adolescents may just be a victim of their environment.
         To begin, When there are youth in the adult cell blocks, they face a higher risk of sexual and mental abuse, along with physical assault. Adult inmates may see these young, timid adolescents being mixed in an environment with them and think “mhmm fresh bait.” These kids may be easier to take advantage of because they are naïve and may keep quiet about being touched inappropriately or injured by an inmate or prison guard because they may see these adults as their superior. It is far too common where youth in our justice system suffer abuse while under the responsibility of our government because they are forced to be among actual jailbirds who are convicted of serious felonies. This is one of the main reasons why adolescents should not be tried as adults.
         Another reason why I feel as though adolescents should not be tried as adults is because their brain has not yet been fully-developed. The human brain is not yet fully developed until the age of 25. Therefore, an adolescents mental development is not at its peak and they do not fully grasp what is morally right or wrong. They may have committed the serious crime based on living in the moment, peer pressure or just mischievousness rather than intent.

         Being a victim of their environment may be another reason why a adolescent should not be tried as an adult. E. A. Bucchianeri once said, “Evil influence is like a nicotine patch, you cannot help but absorb what sticks to you.” I feel like the environment that a child is brought up in plays a pivotal role in deciding the decisions they will make in their lives. An adolescent may have committed such a heinous felony because this is what they have been introduced to base off the environment they grew up in. In this case, I would consider this child a victim of their environment.
         Finally, I disagree with the statement “adolescents who commit serious crimes should be tried as adults” because if convicted, these kids may be exposed to abuse, their brain is not yet fully developed to make moral decisions that come will such serious consequences and these kids may just be a victim of their environment.

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What contributes to Crime?

Stop the violence and increase the peace!  With the high incident of murder and thirteen to Fourteen year old students are now being sentenced to life in prison, these words seems to be falling to deaf ears. The Bahamas appears to be as Will Smith sings, “The Wild Wild West!”  Our nation needs to wake up! The factors that are influencing an increase in crime are bad parenting, video games, and the lack of education. 


Firstly, because parents do not take the time to groom their children like a lady or men showing them love and affection.  Kids end up wondering the streets like a potcake looking for love in all the wrong places.  What happened to teaching children how to respect your elders? Why are parents spearing the rod?  The bible says, “spear the rod, spoil the child.” There is no longer fear in the home.  Babies are now having babies.  My father always taught me, “what happens at home goes abroad.  Too many young people are straying to gangs because they are looking for love. Parents love your children and pour love into your children. Push them to do positive things.  Maybe if we had more parents fulfilling their duties as a parent, the crime rate wouldn’t be so high. 

Secondly, everything you watch someone is being murdered.  It seems like video games and T.v shows are contaminating the minds of people in our society. LMN is a network that actually features movies where individuals learn how to deal with abuse; these movies no longer have happy endings; In fact its more like Sally kills her ex-husband and throws him in the river.  Of course, she gets away with it! Video games are now increasing in violence.  It seems like the more violence you have the more people want this product.  For example, black spie is a game that many teenage boys spend time and energy playing.  Their minds are being programmed to violent actions.  When these young men are faced with a problem, the only thing in their minds is violence.  If someone killed a member of their family, they believe revenge is the only reasonable response to their problem.  Forgiveness is thrown out of the window.  Can’t you see?  We are loosing all our young men to crime! Now they are trying to give transgender rights.  Our young men will be like the government water pressure, low.  Parents, filter the shows your children watch.  Encourage them to watch educational shows that will benefit them in the long run. 

            Lastly, students are being fooled, like Alexander Ingraham would say, “you are being bamboozled.”  

Administrative Management Essay


Are you a manager?  If you are a good manager at some point you should consider the issue of style.  Do I use the management style of Fayol who widely regarded as the father of modern management theories or Fredrick Winslow Taylor who was identified as as the developer of scientific management? 

            A consideration of Administrative management theories is essential because when organizations lack the relevant structure chaos is the result.  This is particularly evident in the government sector because often there is no clear division of labor, and delegation of power and authority to administrators. 

Additionally, in most industries, most professionals understand that no one theory works.  In education for example teachers must use a plethora of styles and strategies to reach their students.  In law enforcement, holding fast to the law may not always use the best results and neither will ignoring it.  A good officer must know balance as he carries out his duties.  Consequently, no more management style will work. 


Taylor rightfully argued for equity in the treatment of workers.  He wanted to make individual workers more efficient.  He understood that this management style is fundamental to developing and sustaining talent in any organization.  The lack thereof contributes to mass turnover of workers, which ultimately adversely affects company profitability and productivity.  In contrast, Fayol emphasized a more “top-down perspective.” (  He focused on educating management and improving processes first.  He also believed that by focusing on managerial practices, organizations could minimize misunderstandings and increase efficiency. 


Management Objectives

According to George S. Odiorne, the system of management by objectives is the process whereby manager and line staff collectively establish its common goals, define each “individual’s major areas of responsibility in terms of the results expected of him”, and use these processes as guides for operating the organization. 

In order to boost the moral of young marines, support and encouragement is badly needed.  For example, as a new marine on the Defence Force, I would want my superiors to show more care for my welfare as a subordinate.  If someone gets sick fellow marines would buy a card or send a fruit basket to that ailing officer.  When people feel that they are a valuable part of an organization, they become motivates and are more inclined to do their best.  Additionally, if I was involved in the governance of the Defence Force, I would recommend the giving of proper orientation to junior officers. Proper orientation of the various departments ensures that I carry out my duties at a high level of competentcy and I continue to bring honor to the Royal Bahamas Defence Force.  As it stands Leadership can not be effective on the Defence Force because subordinates have little opportunity to make contributions to improve the organization.


Consequently, motivation, communication, and clarity of goals are three important considerations of any organization. Sadly these three are often neglected by organizations.  In education a man or woman might teach for countless years and never once have an opportunity for upgrading. If he does so it is generally at his or her own expense.  This practice is a demotivator.  When people are not motivated they do not perform at their optimal.  Additionally, in the area of law enforcement, an officer may be a devoted officer who eagerly interested in pursuing the law but when high powered criminals are involved often the rules change.  The question then becomes, are we genuinely desirous of upholding the law or not?  This brings into the issue of clarity of goals.  And of course we all know when employees do not have clear expectations, people become cynical and apathetic and corrupt simply because there seem to be no standard. 


The use of the Management objective style must be used with a balanced approach.  Company objectives must be discussed and agreed upon.  When objectives are discussed and agreed upon, companies are more likely to yield its desired results: productivity. Of course, this is no easy feat for managers who are not talented communicators or those who may employ communication styles that may intimidate, demean or create fear in their subordinates.  Additionally, objectives can hardly be met if leadership or stakeholders have not truly bought into these goals, or resources are not available.


Scientific Management

According to Mexus education, “scientific management implies application of scientific principles for studying and identifying management problems.

Taylor started as a operator and rose to chief operator.  According to taylor if a problem is analyzed scientifically, it would be possible to find one best way to do it. 

Taylor emphasized the following in his scientific management approach:

  1. Science, not Rule of Thumb

  2. Harmony, not discord

  3. Cooperation not Individualism

  4. Development of Each and every person to his or greatest efficiency and prosperity


During the industrial revolution, managers would use their personal judgment to solve the problems they encountered during their work.  The company suffered often because managers were primarily using trial and error.  Taylor wanted to come up with a system that would allow him to be more accurate.  Additionally, he wanted to establish what was a fair day wage, work hours and conditions.  Cooperation not individualism was a goal of this new theory..  For this to happen management must have their ears open to suggestions and constructive criticism.  Additionally, he stressed the need for workers to be given the relevant training they need so that they function at their optimal. 

One major contribution of Taylor was the invention of the assembly line which involves deciding the sequence of operations, machines and raw materials.  Many car manufacturing companies, and fast food franchises use Taylor’s method of management to achieve greater productivity. 

Another major contribution was time ttudy was also an important consideration in his scientific management approach.  He set about trying to determine what the minimum time limit a worker should take to accomplish a particular task.  This is essential for productivity.  Franchises like Wendys appear to be very preoccupied with Time Study. 

A third major contribution was the employment of differential piece wage system was also a method he employed.  In a nutshell workers were paid as per their performance.  Consequently those who perform a high standard would be given higher salaries while those who perform at a lower level would naturally get a lower salary. 

In the final analysis, Taylor’s research increased productivity, and simplified jobs. This was very different from the way work was typically done in businesses beforehand. A factory manager at that time had very little contact with the workers, and he left them on their own to produce the necessary product. There was no standardization, and a worker's main motivation was often continued employment, so there was no incentive to work as quickly or as efficiently as possible.

Taylor believed that all workers were motivated by money, so he promoted the idea of "a fair day's pay for a fair day's work." In other words, if a worker didn't achieve enough in a day, he didn't deserve to be paid as much as another worker who was highly productive.

On the contrary, according Iken in the article, Understanding Taylorism and Early Management Theory, Taylorism separates manual from mental work, modern productivity enhancement practices seek to incorporate worker's ideas, experience and knowledge into best practice. Scientific management in its pure form focuses too much on the mechanics, and fails to value the people side of work, whereby motivation and workplace satisfaction are key elements in an efficient and productive organization.

Bored, Broke and Armed: Clues to Chicago’s Gang Violence”


The young men who call themselves Gangster Disciples skirted by an empty lot. They marched past a “Stop the Violence” mural painted on a corner store, coming to a halt when they saw members of a rival gang, the Black Disciples.

It was late September on a busy South Side intersection, and now tensions were escalating, gang members who were there recalled.

There were glares, they said. Then words.

“You’re a rat,” a Black Disciple said to one of the Gangster Disciples who he believed had given the police information about him.

Things were about to blow.

It had been exactly 90 days since some of these same men had sat across from one another in an airy church hall to broker peace and confront a hard truth: The gang war they had inherited and were viciously continuing was helping to unravel parts of this city, where the levels of violence were reaching horrific new heights.

With 739 murders as of Wednesday, 2016 has been Chicago’s deadliest year since 1997. Six fatalities came during Memorial Day weekend, when The New York Times tracked 49 shootings involving 64 victims over three days. One of the shooting survivors from that weekend was a Gangster Disciple known as Mexico, shot in his right leg on May 29 when tensions flared between the same factions that were about to square off in front of the store, New Food Inc.

An overwhelming majority of the city’s 3,451 shootings this year were gang-related, the police say. What that means has become increasingly fuzzy, as the large, well-organized operations built around drug dealing have splintered, and are now little more than cliques or sets.

The Times spent several weeks this fall with gang members to get a better understanding of what it means to be in a gang. They were often days of boredom, punctuated by bursts of drama and bravado. Gang life means animated debates over whether the guys on the next block meant to insult you or not. It means worrying over how to make enough for your next meal or your next high. And it means mourning the loss of loved ones, retaliating in their honor, yet wanting the cycle to stop.

Ron, a 23-year-old Black Disciple who uses the nickname Kaos, and for safety reasons asked that his last name not be used, explained the relentless cycle of violence: I’ve already lost friends. If we are making money, I can ignore the urge to retaliate. “But if we’re sitting here bored, getting high and we got guns around, it ain’t nothing else to do,” he added.

Still, these are young men who defy easy caricature. They are the sales associates who help you find shoes at a sportswear store or factory workers next to you on the assembly line. They kiss their young children on the lips and cry when someone close to them dies.

And, yes, they do use and sell drugs, and sometimes lash out in inexplicable bursts of violence over disputes like a battle for a girl’s attention, or disrespectful words uttered on a rap video posted to YouTube.

Or, as was the case in front of the corner store in late September, over an insult hurled on a busy intersection.

There was supposed to be a mechanism to stop this from escalating. During the peace talks at Pastor Corey Brooks’s New Beginnings Church in June, the rival factions had brokered a truce. They had agreed to run their disputes up the ladder to gang elders, who would work to quash them.

But now things moved fast, said the two gang members who were there. After the insult, the Gangster Disciples left the block, but then returned, and the verbal jabbing continued. Then, the Gangster Disciples claim, the Black Disciple who had called one of them a rat reached into his pocket and pulled out his cellphone, pretending it was a gun. The Black Disciples denied that.

Whatever the truth, a Gangster Disciple whipped out a pistol and opened fire, witnesses said. The busy block scattered. And the Black Disciple with the phone was shot in his foot. The truce established in the church hall had been broken.

On that afternoon, while his friends marched over to see if the man in the red hoodie was a threat, Weedy hung back. His allies would learn that the young man was, indeed, a rival’s relative. But he was not doing anything threatening, so they let it go.

Weedy leaned on a black iron gate, looking on from afar.

“Even if it was an opp, he can go to the store,” Weedy said, using the slang term for a rival. “We go to their store. What’s the problem? You got to play fair.”

He has not fully extricated himself from gang life, and may never do so. But here he was, no stranger himself to gunplay, questioning not just the scene playing out before him, but his own life.

It was a delicate dance, Weedy said. Approach an opp aggressively and he might shoot you. Or you’re the one with the gun. “He talk crazy, you shoot him,” he said.

“You go to jail, you get killed. It’s either/or. For what?”

After the shooting, dozens of Black Disciples gathered at their home base: the Parkway Garden Homes, a complex of brick mid-rise buildings stretching three blocks along South Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, built in the 1950s to house black middle-class families. Michelle Obama lived there as a toddler.

But over time, the middle-class families left, and mostly low-income families moved in. More than half of the population lives in poverty in Parkway and the surrounding neighborhood, which is 95 percent black. An abandoned Walgreens sits on King Drive, along with cellphone stores and fast food shops that moved in when many businesses picked up and left.

Parkway earned a reputation as one of Chicago’s most violent areas. It was, however, considered a safe zone for the Black Disciples who controlled the complex — a faction known as O’Block, named after a fallen ally, Odee Perry.

Now they were debating how to respond to the shooting at New Food.

Some people wanted to respect the truce, in large part because it allowed them to make money by selling drugs in peace. That was why many had advocated for it in the first place.

Others, however, turned to the man who had been shot, Kaos recalled.

“We’re with whatever you’re with — however you feel about it because you got shot,” he recalled some people saying. “If you want to push, we’re going to push.”

Black gangs began sprouting in Chicago in earnest in the 1950s during a second wave of northward migration of black Southerners. The migrants came looking for opportunity, but were crammed into overcrowded, segregated pockets on the city’s South and West sides where industry and jobs were dwindling.

Conditions were ripe for what followed: Boys, with little supervision, money or education, formed cliques. They hung out socially, and got into fights and other petty trouble.

The rabble-rousing evolved into extortion of local businesses, much as it did with the existing white ethnic gangs and local mobsters. Then came the heroin and crack epidemics that turned gangs into lucrative drug-trafficking organizations that fought over territory. For a while, though, the gangs in Woodlawn also helped keep calm and avoid riots after the assassination of the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and helped with a federally funded job training program in the area.

But those highly organized operations have fizzled over the last 25 years as prosecutors swept up gang leaders, and the city demolished public housing projects, dispersing gang members primarily to minority neighborhoods on the West and South Sides.

Now they were everywhere and nowhere — gangsters by name, but kings only of corners and blocks.

And instead of turf and money, they fought over personal slights.

Kaos was coy about how O’Block responded to the shots fired by the Jaro City member at New Food. Violence did, however, continue that week.

Two days after the New Food shooting, two Gangster Disciples were shot at night in a drive-by about a block from the store, but people on both sides said that particular shooting was unrelated to the feud.

A day later, the two sides clashed again near New Food, firing shots at each other. The mother of a Black Disciple was caught in the crossfire, shot in her left foot.

By late that afternoon, Sept. 22, alarm bells were going off at New Beginnings Church. Pastor Brooks huddled with some of the gang elders. The truce seemed to be falling apart.

Lavondale Glass, 43, a former Gangster Disciple who was helping to broker peace, saw the young men falling into the dangerous logic of revenge.

“This is what I don’t understand with the younger generation,” Mr. Glass, who goes by the name Big Dale, told Kaos one day. “How could you honor the dead and not the living?” Those who were killed are dead, he said. “Ain’t no bringing them back.”

Big Dale had lost his own father, Leon Holton, in 1996 — assassinated in a Gangster Disciple power struggle as federal agents were moving hard against many of the gang’s top lieutenants. His son, who is part of the Jaro City faction, was shot in the hand a few days before the truce was brokered.

But there often comes a time when the gang members lucky to make it past their 30s face the damage they have done and want to fix it. Big Dale had reached that point.

Pastor Brooks and the elders decided that Big Dale would gather the Gangster Disciples to discuss what was going on, while the Black Disciple old heads would do the same with their side. They would then hold a joint session to determine how to get the peace back on track.

But after the Black Disciples spent about an hour shouting at one another in a parking lot behind the church, the elders realized they first needed to resolve an internal rift. It appeared that some in the O’Block clique were jealous because, while they were broke, their allies from the 63rd Street faction seemed to be making money selling drugs, said a former Black Disciple who described the issue only on the condition of anonymity.

The attitude of some of the young men on O’Block was that if they couldn’t make money, then “can’t nobody get nothing,” the former Black Disciple said. “When they get bored, they do stupid stuff.”

Boredom is, indeed, a big part of gang life.

But boredom mixed with desperation can turn menacing.

And that was where several of Kaos’s gang allies found themselves on a chilly night in late October as they slipped on clear Guy Fawkes masks and set upon a man they saw walking by himself along King Drive. They were broke, and this is what they were going to do about it.

When Kaos was growing up, gang life seemed like anything but a thrifty, desperate existence. Living with his mother in the Robert Taylor Homes, a sprawling and notorious housing project just south of downtown, he saw the closets stuffed with plastic Aldi bags of cash, stashed by Gangster Disciples, he said.

He moved away when the projects were demolished, and stayed with his grandmother in Black Disciples territory. By his early teens, he was found to have an impulsive behavior disorder, he said. He became deeply immersed in the Black Disciples after a friend was killed by a rival of the gang.

At around 13, he said, he faced his first serious charges: attempted murder, which landed him in juvenile jail. He was charged with three gun felonies as an adult, but earned a G.E.D. in prison, he said.

He spent two semesters in cooking school but dropped out in part because it was in rival gang territory and was dangerous, he said.

He has managed to make enough money selling drugs to pose as something of a high roller. Tall with blond dreadlocks often hidden beneath a safari hat, Kaos wears Balmain jeans that cost hundreds of dollars, a Versace belt and a glittering wristwatch.

But on this October day, his flashy trappings were mostly for show because he had gone several months without selling drugs, he said. Good product was hard to come by.

He hung out in an apartment he shared with a girlfriend, and some friends stopped by. They all lamented the same problem: They had no money.

For some, there was admittedly a lack of motivation to job-hunt. For others, criminal records got in the way. Kaos said he had been turned away by Walmart, Walgreens, Footlocker and others. One in four adults in this neighborhood has not graduated from high school, and the unemployment rate is 33 percent, two and a half times the citywide rate.

Even when Kaos landed a job, there were complications getting there. Riding public transportation can make gang members easy targets for rivals.

But the alternatives are tough, too: Kaos had recently gotten a job with a company baking pastries for international flights, but he quit after three days because he wouldn’t be paid until after his second week, he said, and he didn’t have gas money to get to work. And in a neighborhood where people haggle over dollar bills, he did not have anyone to borrow money from.

As darkness fell, Kaos said he peeked out of the window and saw about 10 gang allies slipping on the Guy Fawkes masks.

A few minutes later, one knocked on his door, Kaos said. He and some of the younger gang members had tried to rob a man, he told Kaos. But the man pulled a pistol, shot one of them in the leg and ran off.

An ambulance carted away the wounded man. His friends lingered in the courtyard, laughing about the fiasco.

Inside, Kaos shook his head.

“I don’t know what they were thinking,” he said, injecting a curse word.

He later lamented, “It only takes one to push a crowd.”

Now there were fresh worries: The man they tried to rob could belong to a gang, meaning they may have incited a battle with an unknown clique, Kaos said. And if that guy wanted to retaliate, he had the element of surprise on his side because no one got a good look at his face.

Retaliation is a universal worry of gang members. So it was in the rival Jaro City, which had been in a state of alert since the New Food shooting weeks earlier.

The clique worried that the war was about to flare again, said Antwine White, 24, a Gangster Disciple who is called Weedy. “You just get prepared for the worst,” he said. “They can walk over here. We can think it’s cool. They shoot.”

That defines day-to-day gang life in Chicago. The young men bound around with their chests out, but their heads are on constant swivels, eyeing everything around them.

It’s why the gang members here engage in their own sort of profiling: People with dreadlocks and hoodies, especially those they have never seen before, draw more scrutiny.

And so, weeks after the convenience store shooting, when peace seemed to have been restored, a passionate discussion about politics and revolution between Weedy and his gang allies broke up at the sight of an unfamiliar face: a man in a red hoodie.

“Steady walking back and forth on the corner, right here in front of Rothschild,” a fellow Gangster Disciple said, referring to a liquor store about 100 yards from where they were standing.

A couple of the Gangster Disciples hustled over to check him out. But Weedy hung back.

Here he was, caught in a middle ground of ambivalence. Am I in the gang or out? How can I leave when most of my friends are still in it? Or when I still need to rely on it to make a few dollars?

Weedy grew up on the block. His father was a prominent Gangster Disciple. His father’s friends would get a kick out of it whenever they reached for Weedy’s hand and he would mimic the gang handshake.

He relished the attention. But as he got older, he yearned for a deeper relationship with his father. There was no fatherly slap on the back or shoes promised to him for making the honor roll. His father, who Weedy said had a drinking problem, would arrange to pick him up from his mother’s house, but he would sit there until 2 a.m., waiting.

“Once I got immune to him lying, it was a wrap,” Weedy said. “My trust, that bond with him wasn’t there no more.”

So when he got into fights at school, when he needed information or wanted help solving problems, Weedy did not call his father. He turned to his friends on the block.

The streets became even more appealing after a popular Gangster Disciple, Jarvis Smith, 22, was killed 11 years ago, drawing everyone in the neighborhood closer.

Weedy started selling drugs and gambling. He wasn’t a gunman himself, he said, but he would put up money to buy guns.

All seemed well until June 2, 2014, when he was headed to his job at a sportswear store downtown.

Weedy would take the elevated train, but the closest stop was near rival turf, so he used one farther away in the other direction. As he walked toward the stop, he felt a shock pulse through his body. He fell.

On the ground, he said, he looked over his shoulder and saw a man firing a gun about 20 yards away. Weedy had been shot twice before, but those were relatively minor injuries. This was serious.

“I thought he was going to run up, stand over me,” Weedy said. “I thought it was over.”

His son was then only about six months old and it pained him, he said, to think the boy would grow up without a father. But the shooter never rushed up for the kill.

After that, Weedy started thinking differently, he said. He resolved to reconcile with his father. He would recommit to leading his son in a better direction. And he told his friends not to seek revenge.

“I’m covered in the blood of Jesus,” he told them.

But leaving gang life is not simple. For one, just because you say you’re out of the gang doesn’t mean your rivals see it that way.

On that afternoon, while his friends marched over to see if the man in the red hoodie was a threat, Weedy hung back. His allies would learn that the young man was, indeed, a rival’s relative. But he was not doing anything threatening, so they let it go.

Weedy leaned on a black iron gate, looking on from afar.

“Even if it was an opp, he can go to the store,” Weedy said, using the slang term for a rival. “We go to their store. What’s the problem? You got to play fair.”

He has not fully extricated himself from gang life, and may never do so. But here he was, no stranger himself to gunplay, questioning not just the scene playing out before him, but his own life.

It was a delicate dance, Weedy said. Approach an opp aggressively and he might shoot you. Or you’re the one with the gun. “He talk crazy, you shoot him,” he said.

“You go to jail, you get killed. It’s either/or. For what?”


Questions on “Bored, Broke and Armed: Clues to Chicago’s Gang Violence” by John

Questions for Close Reading




Short Answer Questions 

  1. What escalated tensions on the day described at the beginning of the article?

  2. What had happened 90 days earlier?

  3. . How have gangs changed in recent history? (What does it mean that they have “splintered”?

  4. In the paragraph that begins, “The Times spent several weeks this fall…,” how is gang life summarized?

  5. What does it mean that “these are young men who defy easy caricature”?

  6. What options did the O’Block faction consider after the shooting? What factors influenced their decision?

  7. What does it mean that “Now they were everywhere and nowhere—gangsters by name, but kings only of corners and blocks.” Explain in your own words.

  8. What do the gang members fight over now and how has that changed?

  9. What does Lavondale Glass, or Big Dale say that he doesn't understand about the “younger generation”? Explain in your own words.

  10. What often happens when gang members survive long enough “to make it past their 30s”?

  11. What was the cause of the “internal rift” within O ’Block?

  12. The author outlines a few different reasons why the young man have a hard time making money. What are they?

  13. Kaos says, “It only takes one to push a crowd.” Explain what this means in your own words.

  14. What is the “universal worry of gang members”?

  15. What is the paradox of “day-to-day gang life in Chicago”?

  16. Why was Weedy “caught in a middle ground of ambivalence”? Between what different needs or desires was he torn?

  17. Why did Weedy “turn to his friends on the block” when he needed help?

  18. What event caused Weedy to start “thinking differently”?

  19. What makes it tricky to leave a gang?'

  20. What does the last quote of the article suggest about gang life?

Abuse of Power by Police

Persuasive Essay Sample 

While it is said that police officers are some of the heroes in our nation I strongly agree that Police officers use too much force when it comes to the public because they abuse their power , they aren’t keen to rationally solve most civilian matters and the training they have been through to become a police officer isn’t molding them to carry out their jobs efficiently and correctly.

Still given their credibility, Police officers still abuse their power. This can be achieved through means of personal gains.It can start of as simple as skipping food lines made up of dozens of other individuals to abusing others just because of the stripes on their arms.Police Corruption is one of the major reasons that’s corruption prevails. Studies have shown that thousands of police officers were arrested for the importation and exportation of narcotics.This goes to show that the term “wolves in sheep’s clothing” actually exists.Further more these people also indulge in corruption when they receive bribes from criminals that should be locked up. They drive around the streets preying on innocent people threatening them with fines or jail time when their job is to protect and serve. Time and time again we’ve heard on the news of police finding millions of dollars, Do you really think they turn it all in?

    Secondly, these people aren’t equipped to dispute civil matters. How can they if there is a global problem where these people slay and scapegoat innocent people for crimes they’ve never committed. This can be seen even when trying to detain and arrest someone. Now tell me , If your son or daughter is complying with an officer and the officer insists your child is resisting arrest and slams them into the car or tases them do you think it is just? Would you still feel that it is reasonable if it were your own flesh and blood? I’ve learnt that these people are cold hearted and sadistic just from the way they treat they people that they were meant to protect and help.

    Lastly, the training these people have went through to become an officer hasn’t instilled anything about being humane. They do a program for a total of three to six months with non stop drilling , body exercises, recitation of the hand book , lectures and exams to carry out their job but to no avail they make room for dereliction. Its unfortunate that you train someone for so long trying to mold them only to bring disgrace to and organization of such high standards. For those who aren’t caught just bandwagon the rookies to follow in their footsteps to gain an extra dollar. If you were taught how to do something how do you stray away. Notice I’ve repeatedly said “these people” this because of my distaste in their ad infinitum behavior toward their fellow man. They aren’t superior to us because they are “the law”  so they shouldn’t use their badges against us to justify the painful battering  given to us.

    On the other hand others may say that it is a necessity for officers to use excessive force with the public because it is the public that poses a threat or endangers their lives . It is said some departments encourage officers to use excessive force and can even be rewarded for doing so.They are rewarded for violent behavior against suspects maybe even end others lives when they feel threatened or their own lives are endangered.While this can be justified in most cases there is still a way in which you should handle situations when lives are at risk.Overall this it is not logical to end a life we are just like you family and all as you may ultimately lose your job or receive back lash.

    To briefly paraphrase police officers use too much force when it comes to the public because they abuse their power, they rationally solve civil matters and the training isn’t efficient to produce hardworking and devoted officers.

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